The majority of the research and development of Scientology was done in the 1950s. Much of the research data leading up to new developments was never published. People involved with Scientology at that time were aware of what was being developed, but only those directly involved with the research were aware of all the information.
Hubbard's research auditor and primary technical assistant in the 1950s was John Galusha. In 1952, John had started working with LRH in Wichita. He followed Hubbard to such places as Phoenix, Camden, NJ, Washington, DC, and England. Additionally, John was LRH's director of training, director of processing, and supervised the congresses where many new technical developments were released.
In the early 1950s LRH came out with creative processing, also known as mock-up processing and positive gains processing. Hubbard felt that this form of auditing made all other forms unnecessary. His rationale for this was as follows: What a being is doing is mocking up. If you get him mocking up on purpose what he's mocking up compulsively, that should handle any aberration.
All of the primary sources of published data on creative processing came out prior to 1953 or 1954; the Philadelphia Doctorate Tapes, Creation of Human Ability, and Scientology 8-8008. But few people know that there were several more years of research done that was never written up. Being the research auditor during that period, John Galusha had knowledge of this research information.
People being audited with creative processes had fast and amazing gains. But as most individuals continued with this processing, their auditing stalled and they bogged down. The reason for these difficulties puzzled Hubbard, and a lot of research went into resolving this situation. After years of trying to discover the reason for limited success with mock-up processing, LRH just came up with a reason why people were stalling. He concluded that that form of auditing was too high-level for people, and that they needed to approach creative processing on lesser gradients. Therefore, creative processing and all the unpublished research information was put on a back burner, and Hubbard started constructing a bridge of gradient auditing services.
John really didn't feel that LRH had fully proven his hypothesis regarding the stalled cases, but went along with it, believing that Hubbard knew what he was doing. It's interesting to note that the idea of a bridge for Scientology was something LRH was excited about long before the difficulties with creative processing arose. The last line in Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health is, "For God's sake, get busy and build a better bridge!" The problems with mock-up processing certainly gave him a good reason to build the bridge himself.
Prior to the development of the bridge, auditors just had a big barrel of processes. They reached in and grabbed processes according to the situations they were handling. When his work on building the bridge began, LRH started organizing processes into a gradient scale of auditing. A decade later he came out with OT 3. This level signified to Hubbard the end of the negative gains processing.
He then felt that people completing OT 3 were now able to do creative processing. But, he didn't re-institute creative processing in the researched form of the late 1950s. Over the previous ten years, Scientology had grown significantly with the marketing of a bridge, and LRH did not want to abandon this format. He therefore re-packaged creative processing in a level format, coming out with the old OT levels, 4 through 7. This level format was not as effective as the straight creative processing, but it allowed the successful marketing method to continue.
As OT 3s started doing OT 4 through 7 they began bogging down, just as people had done in the 1950s with creative processing. Hubbard then believed that the reason for these bogs was that there must be more to be done with the subject of OT 3. He then came out with OT 3X (Expanded), and anyone OT 3 or above was put on OT 7, a level having to do with intention. When completed with OT 7 they went directly onto OT 3X. When they had finished OT 3X they were then put onto OT 4 through OT 7 again. But even with the re-vamped OT levels, people continued to bog down on the positive gains levels above OT 3.
In the late 1970s, LRH came out with NOTs (New Era Dianetics for OTs). Even though NOTs was a negative gains process, Hubbard felt this was the necessary next gradient after OT 3. He therefore took the old OT levels 4 through 7 and put them on a back burner, just like he'd done with creative processing in the 1950s. Anyone OT 3 or above was just put onto their NOTs.
For the next couple of years there was no bridge after OT 3, just NOTs. Then, wanting to maintain the bridge format, LRH re-designed NOTs into the new OT levels 4 through 7.
In 1985, when others were taking diverse research paths to come up with the next step on the bridge after OT 7 or Advanced Level 7, John Galusha and Survival Services took a unique research route based on the information and history described above. The logical action with people completing all their advanced levels was to now see if they could run creative processing. But this delivery would not be in the watered down version of the old OT levels. It would be done in the original, researched form of the late 1950s.