What Really Goes on Behind the Scenes

bts2free

Patron with Honors
I posted this at OCMB. I'm posting it here for your consideration as well.

I was an MAA at the Int base, including Chief MAA for several years between 1990-2000. I was also the De-PTSer for the entire base for a couple of those years in Qual Gold. I was fully hatted as an MAA and an Ethics Specialist. I was trained to do metered Ethics interviews, Ethics E-Meter Checks, Rollbacks, Sec Checks and PTS Interviews. My Full Hat even required me to study the Brainwashing manual written by LRH as well as sections of Sun Tsu’s Art of War. Also required to study and put into effect the IG MAA program written by Gary Conley and approved by LRH, including LRH notes and signiture in handwriting on the program original copies. I was a member of the Int Base Perimiter Council for several years and so am fully aware and participated in what goes on behind the scenes while all others feel that they are just going on with their own business or attempting to produce and comply.

While most Scientologists are focused on doing their courses or going in session to move up The Bridge, or a staff member or SO member on doing their jobs, there is a whole framework built into the system, which is behind the scenes and meant to be the eye and enforcer for Ron (when he was alive) and of course now for David Miscavige.

As a Scientologist, you are expected to follow the “straight and narrow” path that is The Bridge. There is no half-in or half-out of Scientology. You are on board or you’re not. Period. That’s KSW. Even Tom Cruise would agree with me on that.

Who keeps an eye on you to make sure you’re in line? The Ethics Officer/MAA - as well as every other Scientologist who has read the policies and HCOB’s on Knowledge Reports and Session KRs.

Each one of you who ever took a course or got auditing in a Church of Scientology has a file, or more than one file with your name on it. These files contain your personal information, in writing. Everything you’ve admitted to doing, either in session, or from your O/W write-ups, or Knowledge Reports are kept in your files.

Any Scientologist knows too, that if they observe another Scientologist doing something that violates policy, or is “out-Tech,” or a crime, is to write a Knowledge Report to Ethics on that person, or one is compounding the crime and can be charged with the same penalties as the perpetrator. Every Scientologist has essentially signed up to be eyes and ears; watchers for Ron, DM and the organization. Things to be reported even go so far as to a person’s “indicators” or statements, “Black PR” or “Natter.”

At the Int Base, we held a meeting every week called Perimiter Council (PC), which consisted of all the base MAA’s, I&R’s, HAS’s, Supercargo’s, Port Captain’s, and Security personnel. With a name like Perimiter Council, you would think that this was a meeting to go over how to protect the perimiter of the base from intruders or something. Not so. It’s set up to protect the perimiter from BLOWS and to ensure that no information that could be out-PR or out-security get’s past the gates.

The council has a list of every base member who is deemed to be a “situation” including people who are “BI’s” (have bad indicators). Every staff member who had a PTS situation or who had been in an accident, or who got sick, or who is making a lot of mistakes, or whoever created a “flap” or “Hill 10” is on that list. Even people who are in “grief” are on that list. And the list is taken up every week. The MAA’s and handlers report on the program steps of each person (i.e. Ethics Conditions, O/W’s, PTS handling, Sec Checking, etc.) and where they stand, until they are deemed “handled” and taken off the list. At one point the list had nearly 400 people on it. No joke.

The Perimiter Council minutes were reported up to RTC every week so that David Miscavige, Marty Rathbun, Greg Wilhere, IG MAA and other pertinient RTC members could be informed on where everyone on the list stood.

By the way, this is NOT OSA. In other words, this is the Int Base internal and external “OSA” so to speak. OSA is set up as a whole other unit in Scientology at a lower level, but operates on the same framework and policies in addition to OSA policies. We at the Int Base reported down to OSA on external or internal situations that they would need to be informed of. The Port Captain and Security Gold worked hand-in-hand with OSA when it came to external SP’s or people who had blown. Mike Rinder as the head of OSA for years is well aware of these operations.

You may have heard it said that there is no “Hidden Data Line” in Scientology. This is false. There are binders and binders of LRH “advices” at the base in the PDO library as well as Ethics Addvices, which are kept in the Base Dept. 3 areas in HCO. For example, the IG MAA program I mentioned earlier which was put together by the first IG MAA, Gary Conley, is kept in the base HCO areas. When Gary was writing this program back around 1982, he was submitting the program directly (no vias) to LRH for advice and approval. There are LRH handwritten notes on it as well has his final approval signature. This program introduced the weekly Ethics E-Meter Check for all base staff and was and is the main tool used to use enforcers (MAA’s and EO’s) to keep an eye on all staff and force them into production, and to discover those staff who are thinking about blowing before it happens. Also used to weed out “dead wood,” Hill 10 makers, overt-product makers and non-producers (PTSes and SP’s) and get them sorted out or off the lines. The IG MAA program has been exported to all Ethics Officers around the world on a number of occasions titled “Your Org’s Ethics Program” and is in use today. LRH approved.

People at the base who blow are recovered by a team sent out on a “Blow Drill” which is in place, and ready to go at all times. The IG MAA program, by use of several mandatory daily musters, require all units to account for the presence of all staff members. Anyone unaccounted for is rounded up and if missing, the drill is on. The main booth at Gold is informed and sends out a text message to all staff on the drill to report to their stations or duties. Some staff are assigned to the train station, the bus station, the airport, the local Wal Mart, the berthing areas, even as far as the blowee’s relative’s or close friend’s houses. OSA comes in handy in that regard.

Even I and Jon Stumbke around 1995 were sent out to Sacramento to recover Rick Cruzen who had blown to his parent’s house. We had to spy on their house for a couple days, until we confirmed that he showed up there. Later, I even had to escort Rick Cruzen on his personal family trip to Sacramento, and stay in his parent’s home, to keep an eye on him to make sure he didn’t blow. We lied to his family by telling them that I was a Golden Era Musician who came along to travel with Rick because we had an event to do in Portland. I could tell that Rick’s family still thought it was really odd that I was there, but, they seemed to go along with it.

Around the same time, I was put on an RTC mission called the Int Data Base Mission where we went through every staff member’s Personnel, Ethics and PC Folders to input data following a checklist provided by RTC. Jesse Radstrom in RTC at that time was the Mission Ops, Thersa Laner and Hiro Kimoto the Mission I/C and 2nd. I was an inputter assigned to all of Exec Strata staff and several divisions of Gold, including HCO Gold and PDO. The checklist data input into a computer data base included all and any crimes or suppressive acts, the person’s sexual history as well as any sexual deviance as found in Life History write-ups, session KR’s or O/W’s. All of the person’s external contact information, i.e. family, close friends and all of the addresses and phone numbers where that info was available. We even went through all PC folders of all staff and entrered pertinent data into the computer data base.

When this mission was completed, we had a full computerized data base of all kinds of incriminating or embarrassing information on all base staff. By the press of a few keys, David Miscavige, and all HCO’s on the base could pull up your name and have an “overview” of your personal and private information. Including who your connections were. Your “external influences.”

All MAA’s and I&R’s on the base used this data base regularly to keep tabs on people. The Ethics Admin in each HCO was responsible for updating the data base with reports that came in to HCO.

This data base was tied into the INCOMM mainframe and was supposed to be exported out to all org’s HCO’s. If it hasn’t been done yet, the framework is there for that to be implemented.

Both Marty Rathbun and Mike Rinder are well aware of this data base, its purpose and contents.

When someone blew, we were able to use the data base to instantly pull up the person’s connections and where they may have run to.

Another useful tool of the data base that we would use was to draw up “external influences” charts. For example, in the “connections” section of your data base profile it lists all of your connections, and the data base cross-references other people who are also connected to the same person. Staff member Joe Schlogs has Emily Entheta listed as a close friend. Emily Entheta is also connected to base staff member John Jones, and so on. We would literally take large pieces of paper and draw out these trees to see how all of these conenctions flowed together. It was very usedful in determining where “enemy lines” were coming from, or where Black PR to base staff was possibly generating from.

Scientology is essentially a spy and mind-control network set up to extract the most money it can from it’s members as well as to enforce the maximum amount of production out of each individual, at minimal or no cost to the organization. It’s as simple as that.

The Scientology philosophy or “Tech” is the mouse wheel set up to keep you running in place while all of this other work is going on around you. Ethics keeps you running and keeps you from leaving the wheel. If you believe that running on that wheel is going to get you to achieve these miraculous upper states of OT and ability, that’s totally up to you.

Just realize that every private and personal thing you can think of in your life will be gotten out of you, kept in a file and used to control you. Even your hand-written O/W write ups and your Liability Formulas with that description of your crimes or suppressive acts - and all of those signatures! Possibily even put into a computer data base. And, as a Scientologist, there are files being kept on you that more than one person has acccess to. All other Scientologists are required to keep an eye out and report on you, if you step out of line or fall off the path.

My question for the Independent Scientologist is, who will be the Keeper of the Files on you? Can you trust those people who organized, implemented and ran this system on you and other members for years? I applaud those who have left the Co$ and want to take down Miscavige for his crimes, but, realize that you have been warned.

Sincerely,
John Peeler
 
I posted this at OCMB. I'm posting it here for your consideration as well.

I was an MAA at the Int base, including Chief MAA for several years between 1990-2000. I was also the De-PTSer for the entire base for a couple of those years in Qual Gold. I was fully hatted as an MAA and an Ethics Specialist. I was trained to do metered Ethics interviews, Ethics E-Meter Checks, Rollbacks, Sec Checks and PTS Interviews. My Full Hat even required me to study the Brainwashing manual written by LRH as well as sections of Sun Tsu’s Art of War. Also required to study and put into effect the IG MAA program written by Gary Conley and approved by LRH, including LRH notes and signiture in handwriting on the program original copies. I was a member of the Int Base Perimiter Council for several years and so am fully aware and participated in what goes on behind the scenes while all others feel that they are just going on with their own business or attempting to produce and comply.

While most Scientologists are focused on doing their courses or going in session to move up The Bridge, or a staff member or SO member on doing their jobs, there is a whole framework built into the system, which is behind the scenes and meant to be the eye and enforcer for Ron (when he was alive) and of course now for David Miscavige.

As a Scientologist, you are expected to follow the “straight and narrow” path that is The Bridge. There is no half-in or half-out of Scientology. You are on board or you’re not. Period. That’s KSW. Even Tom Cruise would agree with me on that.

Who keeps an eye on you to make sure you’re in line? The Ethics Officer/MAA - as well as every other Scientologist who has read the policies and HCOB’s on Knowledge Reports and Session KRs.

Each one of you who ever took a course or got auditing in a Church of Scientology has a file, or more than one file with your name on it. These files contain your personal information, in writing. Everything you’ve admitted to doing, either in session, or from your O/W write-ups, or Knowledge Reports are kept in your files.

Any Scientologist knows too, that if they observe another Scientologist doing something that violates policy, or is “out-Tech,” or a crime, is to write a Knowledge Report to Ethics on that person, or one is compounding the crime and can be charged with the same penalties as the perpetrator. Every Scientologist has essentially signed up to be eyes and ears; watchers for Ron, DM and the organization. Things to be reported even go so far as to a person’s “indicators” or statements, “Black PR” or “Natter.”

At the Int Base, we held a meeting every week called Perimiter Council (PC), which consisted of all the base MAA’s, I&R’s, HAS’s, Supercargo’s, Port Captain’s, and Security personnel. With a name like Perimiter Council, you would think that this was a meeting to go over how to protect the perimiter of the base from intruders or something. Not so. It’s set up to protect the perimiter from BLOWS and to ensure that no information that could be out-PR or out-security get’s past the gates.

The council has a list of every base member who is deemed to be a “situation” including people who are “BI’s” (have bad indicators). Every staff member who had a PTS situation or who had been in an accident, or who got sick, or who is making a lot of mistakes, or whoever created a “flap” or “Hill 10” is on that list. Even people who are in “grief” are on that list. And the list is taken up every week. The MAA’s and handlers report on the program steps of each person (i.e. Ethics Conditions, O/W’s, PTS handling, Sec Checking, etc.) and where they stand, until they are deemed “handled” and taken off the list. At one point the list had nearly 400 people on it. No joke.

The Perimiter Council minutes were reported up to RTC every week so that David Miscavige, Marty Rathbun, Greg Wilhere, IG MAA and other pertinient RTC members could be informed on where everyone on the list stood.

By the way, this is NOT OSA. In other words, this is the Int Base internal and external “OSA” so to speak. OSA is set up as a whole other unit in Scientology at a lower level, but operates on the same framework and policies in addition to OSA policies. We at the Int Base reported down to OSA on external or internal situations that they would need to be informed of. The Port Captain and Security Gold worked hand-in-hand with OSA when it came to external SP’s or people who had blown. Mike Rinder as the head of OSA for years is well aware of these operations.

You may have heard it said that there is no “Hidden Data Line” in Scientology. This is false. There are binders and binders of LRH “advices” at the base in the PDO library as well as Ethics Addvices, which are kept in the Base Dept. 3 areas in HCO. For example, the IG MAA program I mentioned earlier which was put together by the first IG MAA, Gary Conley, is kept in the base HCO areas. When Gary was writing this program back around 1982, he was submitting the program directly (no vias) to LRH for advice and approval. There are LRH handwritten notes on it as well has his final approval signature. This program introduced the weekly Ethics E-Meter Check for all base staff and was and is the main tool used to use enforcers (MAA’s and EO’s) to keep an eye on all staff and force them into production, and to discover those staff who are thinking about blowing before it happens. Also used to weed out “dead wood,” Hill 10 makers, overt-product makers and non-producers (PTSes and SP’s) and get them sorted out or off the lines. The IG MAA program has been exported to all Ethics Officers around the world on a number of occasions titled “Your Org’s Ethics Program” and is in use today. LRH approved.

People at the base who blow are recovered by a team sent out on a “Blow Drill” which is in place, and ready to go at all times. The IG MAA program, by use of several mandatory daily musters, require all units to account for the presence of all staff members. Anyone unaccounted for is rounded up and if missing, the drill is on. The main booth at Gold is informed and sends out a text message to all staff on the drill to report to their stations or duties. Some staff are assigned to the train station, the bus station, the airport, the local Wal Mart, the berthing areas, even as far as the blowee’s relative’s or close friend’s houses. OSA comes in handy in that regard.

Even I and Jon Stumbke around 1995 were sent out to Sacramento to recover Rick Cruzen who had blown to his parent’s house. We had to spy on their house for a couple days, until we confirmed that he showed up there. Later, I even had to escort Rick Cruzen on his personal family trip to Sacramento, and stay in his parent’s home, to keep an eye on him to make sure he didn’t blow. We lied to his family by telling them that I was a Golden Era Musician who came along to travel with Rick because we had an event to do in Portland. I could tell that Rick’s family still thought it was really odd that I was there, but, they seemed to go along with it.

Around the same time, I was put on an RTC mission called the Int Data Base Mission where we went through every staff member’s Personnel, Ethics and PC Folders to input data following a checklist provided by RTC. Jesse Radstrom in RTC at that time was the Mission Ops, Thersa Laner and Hiro Kimoto the Mission I/C and 2nd. I was an inputter assigned to all of Exec Strata staff and several divisions of Gold, including HCO Gold and PDO. The checklist data input into a computer data base included all and any crimes or suppressive acts, the person’s sexual history as well as any sexual deviance as found in Life History write-ups, session KR’s or O/W’s. All of the person’s external contact information, i.e. family, close friends and all of the addresses and phone numbers where that info was available. We even went through all PC folders of all staff and entrered pertinent data into the computer data base.

When this mission was completed, we had a full computerized data base of all kinds of incriminating or embarrassing information on all base staff. By the press of a few keys, David Miscavige, and all HCO’s on the base could pull up your name and have an “overview” of your personal and private information. Including who your connections were. Your “external influences.”

All MAA’s and I&R’s on the base used this data base regularly to keep tabs on people. The Ethics Admin in each HCO was responsible for updating the data base with reports that came in to HCO.

This data base was tied into the INCOMM mainframe and was supposed to be exported out to all org’s HCO’s. If it hasn’t been done yet, the framework is there for that to be implemented.

Both Marty Rathbun and Mike Rinder are well aware of this data base, its purpose and contents.

When someone blew, we were able to use the data base to instantly pull up the person’s connections and where they may have run to.

Another useful tool of the data base that we would use was to draw up “external influences” charts. For example, in the “connections” section of your data base profile it lists all of your connections, and the data base cross-references other people who are also connected to the same person. Staff member Joe Schlogs has Emily Entheta listed as a close friend. Emily Entheta is also connected to base staff member John Jones, and so on. We would literally take large pieces of paper and draw out these trees to see how all of these conenctions flowed together. It was very usedful in determining where “enemy lines” were coming from, or where Black PR to base staff was possibly generating from.

Scientology is essentially a spy and mind-control network set up to extract the most money it can from it’s members as well as to enforce the maximum amount of production out of each individual, at minimal or no cost to the organization. It’s as simple as that.

The Scientology philosophy or “Tech” is the mouse wheel set up to keep you running in place while all of this other work is going on around you. Ethics keeps you running and keeps you from leaving the wheel. If you believe that running on that wheel is going to get you to achieve these miraculous upper states of OT and ability, that’s totally up to you.

Just realize that every private and personal thing you can think of in your life will be gotten out of you, kept in a file and used to control you. Even your hand-written O/W write ups and your Liability Formulas with that description of your crimes or suppressive acts - and all of those signatures! Possibily even put into a computer data base. And, as a Scientologist, there are files being kept on you that more than one person has acccess to. All other Scientologists are required to keep an eye out and report on you, if you step out of line or fall off the path.

My question for the Independent Scientologist is, who will be the Keeper of the Files on you? Can you trust those people who organized, implemented and ran this system on you and other members for years? I applaud those who have left the Co$ and want to take down Miscavige for his crimes, but, realize that you have been warned.

Sincerely,
John Peeler

I do hope you are planning to do a submission to the Australian Senate Committee Inquiry?


Mark A. Baker :)
 

FinallyFree

Gold Meritorious Patron
I will never have concern for my paranoia again.

It will not run me, control me or ruin my life - but now I know for sure it is a valid emotional response to this group.

Thank you so much for sharing.

Just another ding for the Marty’s. I do not trust them, not now, not ever.

Marty – what is your response to this post on the “natter board”. Getting a little uncomfortable to have some of your real crimes against people exposed? Your hands are still dirty, when are you going to do something REAL about it??? WHEN?

Until you do, you are just as guilty as that asthmatic dwarf and you know it.
 
thank you John...

Really sorry Marty showed his true colours to you the way he did.

There are a lot of us in the wings with the same view as you. Let's just hope he and DM end up in the mother of all legal battles and the real truth comes out for all to see.

That would be sweet justice for us all.

peace,

blue
 

bts2free

Patron with Honors
just so it's clear, I've already written these things up before, but felt that this was a good time to reiterate the facts and the truth. This was not in response to Marty or anyone over at his Blog. The facts and the truth must be known and exposed continually. And yes, this info is going to Australia, along with any other information I feel would be important.

Thanks!
 

byte301

Crusader
Thanks for posting that John. It's pretty scary and makes me really glad I got out before this crap was implemented to that extent.
 

RogerB

Crusader
Important and Valuable Data

John,

Important and valuable data. You are to be commended for the delivery and exposing of it.

The fact of them "keeping all that info on each of us" we've known for years . . . but to get the good guts on all the rest of the carry-on certainly can be used against them!

And these dogs think they can "get ethics in on the planet!" :duh:

RogerB
 

Div6

Crusader
just so it's clear, I've already written these things up before, but felt that this was a good time to reiterate the facts and the truth. This was not in response to Marty or anyone over at his Blog. The facts and the truth must be known and exposed continually. And yes, this info is going to Australia, along with any other information I feel would be important.

Thanks!

Totally awesome sauce!


The whole "gain" to be had from pulling O\W's was to free the person from the "blame, shame and regret" so that they could NOT be introverted or blackmailed, emotionally or otherwise. So in the spirit of THAT, there is no reason to write any of it down. My experience has been that the initial "pulling" is a bit of a haul, but once the "pc" "gets it", they are quite willing to relieve the burden and move on.

As for the Scientology "Ethics" System, all I can say is you should think twice about using ANY exterior generated system of ethics....you never know what kind of trojans and back doors, "easter eggs" etc may be involved.

In this case, the words "THE CONDITIONS" and "THE EXISTENCE" are listed as basic end words of the Clearing Course Implant.....(http://www.freezoneearth.org/Prometheus04/clearCourse/index.htm)

Which I guess means that "Ethics Officers" are riding the coat tails of implanter orgnaizations in this sector......whatever it is, it is NOT making people MORE self-determined in its current fashion.

Rock on John.
 

Zinjifar

Silver Meritorious Sponsor
Wouldn't it be fun if Marty Rathbun told the *full* story of his 'recovery' of Annie Broeker, when she escaped to rejoin her husband, Jim Logan?

Zinj
 

BC1

Patron with Honors
Is this only done at the Int Base or is this true for all other operations? If it's true for the field, do the investigators in Italy know about this type of database in addition to all the folders?
 

Zinjifar

Silver Meritorious Sponsor
I think I'd like to start with your verision Zinjy :drama:

Oh, I don't know any more than you. Except what Marty and Jim have already told.

Jim had escaped earlier and Annie 'blew' to join him. Marty caught her at an airport and brought her back to Int, where she languished in durance vile till she saw the error of her ways, divorced Jim and 'rejoined her group'.

But, the 'comm' must have been flying.

Zinj
 

Terril park

Sponsor
My question for the Independent Scientologist is, who will be the Keeper of the Files on you? Can you trust those people who organized, implemented and ran this system on you and other members for years? I applaud those who have left the Co$ and want to take down Miscavige for his crimes, but, realize that you have been warned.

Sincerely,
John Peeler

In the independant/FZ arena there is no central authority to report
ethics matters too. Can't recall any ethics investigation ever. One might do level 2 and an agreed upon sec check, but the latter is very rare.

We are not police.
 

Wisened One

Crusader
Thank you for that, bts! What is it about the writing style of YOU and Zinj (HH too) that always seems to clear my head, set me back on the right path again? :bighug: for that!

And am using this for my sig, bts :yes:

"Scientology is essentially a spy and mind-control network set up to extract the most money it can from it’s members as well as to enforce the maximum amount of production out of each individual, at minimal or no cost to the organization. It’s as simple as that. "
 

TR'SIN

Patron with Honors
:D Sorta new to the board, so it was great for me to see. Very refreshing to get the inside skinny and right up front presentation.

:happydance: It made my day to know you have been out for some time and saw the need to re-post.

When you are part of the inner workings of a Class IV Org and you think you know what's going on, it becomes very apparent the minute you step foot on base at an upper Org . . . :police: that you may be clueless.

Before I went out to ITO for trainning my ethics & pc folders went before me. This is so you can be approved to put your little footsies in the same space as the holy people. So after 2wks of a huge runaround, a couple of metered interviews (ethics) this done over my screwed up Out-Int, and never moving on a routing form for anything; I guess I shouldn't have been suprised that I was adjudicated illegal for Staff, and an Illegal pc (denying me of my OT levels). Never an issue written, just some notes on a scrap of paper.
:carryon: Told to go home like a good little girl and route off staff and don't cause "anymore" trouble.

There were enough KR's and requests for Bof I's in my ethics folders for them to see I didn't take violations of Tech very lightly. A very busy staff member with lots policy references and noise about every bloody illegal reg cycle etc.They sure didn't want me Esto'ing the Tech Div at my Org and doing my own investigations and Eval's and what have you. One could only imagine the kind of stuff I'd dig up.:whistling:

Well just a great big thank you. It does a body good to hear the full story from someone who really knows. :thankyou: :goodjob:
 

Alanzo

Bardo Tulpa
Way to go, John.

This is the kind of information everyone needs to understand about Mike Rinder and Marty Rathbun.

This is what they do not talk about.

Because they do not talk about this, because they NEVER enter this data into any blog post, because they suppress almost every blog comment that is made about this, or they "dead-agent" anyone who brings it up on their blog, and because they do not want any intrusion by law enforcement and they actively work to keep everyone from going to law enforcement for justice - I firmly believe they intend to set this system right back up at their very first opportunity, and as soon as they are given the chance.

I used to be a Marty backer.

Not any more.

Thank you very much for this information about the Int Base Psychotics who ruined my religion.
 
just so it's clear, I've already written these things up before, but felt that this was a good time to reiterate the facts and the truth. This was not in response to Marty or anyone over at his Blog. The facts and the truth must be known and exposed continually. And yes, this info is going to Australia, along with any other information I feel would be important.

Thanks!

Good to know this story has wings, and thanks for keeping this info up and flying. The Emerald City Shack's revisionist movie of LRH the good witch and DM the wicked witch is a real mind bender.

Once the scarecrows get their brains back, memory remarkably improves.
 

Anonamus

New Member
George Orwells "1984" in RL effect. No wonder DM deleted that from PDC tape 20. Makes you wonder why the old conman made reference to Orwell in the first place.
 
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